O.T. Paynter-Wells

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1. According to Isaiah Berlin, what is ‘positive freedom’?


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  • ‘How did the proletariat originate?
    The Proletariat originated in the industrial revolution, which took place in England in the last half of the last (18th) century, and which has since then been repeated in all the civilized countries of the world.
    This industrial revolution was precipitated by the discovery of the steam engine, various spinning machines, the mechanical loom, and a whole series of other mechanical devices. These machines, which were very expensive and hence could be bought only by big capitalists, altered the whole mode of production and displaced the former workers, because the machines turned out cheaper and better commodities…

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O.T. Paynter-Wells

Commentary on current affairs

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